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Hotuba ya bajeti ya Wizara ya Mambo ya Nje na Ushirikiano wa Kimataifa 2011/2012 HOTUBA YA WAZIRI WA MAMBO YA NJE NA USHIRIKIANO WA KIMATAIFA, MHESHIMIWA BERNARD KAMILLIUS MEMBE (MB.), AKIWASILISHA BUNGENI MAKADIRIO YA MAPATO NA MATUMIZI YA WIZARA KWA MWAKA WA FEDHA 2011/2012 A. UTANGULIZI 1. Mheshimiwa Spika, kufuatia taarifa iliyowasilishwa leo hapa Bungeni na Mwenyekiti wa Kamati ya Bunge ya Kudumu ya Mambo ya Nje, Ulinzi na Usalama (NUU), naomba kutoa hoja kwamba Bunge lako tukufu likubali kujadili na kupitisha makadirio ya mapato na matumizi ya Wizara ya Mambo ya Nje na Ushirikiano wa Kimataifa kwa mwaka wa fedha 2011/2012. 2.  Mheshimiwa Spika, kwanza kabisa nachukua fursa hii kumpongeza Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania Mhe. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete kwa kuchaguliwa tena kuongoza kwa muhula wa pili wa Serikali ya Awamu ya Nne. Pili, ninamshukuru sana Mhe. Rais kwa imani kubwa aliyonayo kwangu kwa kunichagua kwa mara nyingine tena kuongoza Wizara ya Mambo ya Nje na Ushirikiano wa Kimataifa. Aidha, ninampongeza Dkt. Mohammed Gharib Bilal kwa kuchaguliwa kuwa Makamu wa Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Vile vile, ninampongeza Mhe. Mizengo Kayanza Peter Pinda, (Mb.) kwa kuchaguliwa bila kupingwa kuwa Mbunge na kuteuliwa tena na Mhe. Rais na hatimaye kuthibitishwa na Waheshimiwa Wabunge kuwa Waziri Mkuu kwa muhula wa pili wa Serikali ya Awamu ya Nne. 3. Mheshimiwa Spika, napenda nikupongeze kwa kuchaguliwa kwa kishindo kushika nafasi ya Spika wa Bunge letu tukufu la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, hivyo kuwa mwanamke wa kwanza kushika nafasi hiyo tangu kupatikana kwa uhuru wa nchi yetu, miaka 50 iliyopita. Uteuzi wako ni kielelezo cha ukomavu wa demokrasia ya nchi yetu na imani kubwa tuliyonayo sisi Waheshimiwa Wabunge, juu ya utendaji wako uliotukuka. Kadhalika, nampongeza Naibu Spika, Mhe. Job Ndugai pamoja na Wenyeviti kwa kuchaguliwa katika kusaidia uendeshaji wa Bunge hili tukufu. Napenda pia kuwapongeza Mawaziri wenzangu pamoja na Naibu Mawaziri wote, kwa kuteuliwa kwao na Mhe. Rais kushika nyadhifa hizo. Aidha, napenda kuchukua fursa hii kuwapongeza Waheshimiwa Wabunge wote kwa kupata heshima na dhamana kubwa ya kuwawakilisha wananchi wa majimbo pamoja na makundi mbalimbali ya jamii katika Bunge hili. 4. Mheshimiwa Spika, naomba kwa namna ya pekee niwashukuru Waziri Mkuu, Mhe. Mizengo Kayanza Peter Pinda (Mb.) na Waziri wa Fedha, Mhe. Mustafa Haidi Mkulo (Mb.) kwa hotuba zao ambazo zimetoa mwelekeo wa Taifa letu katika mwaka huu wa fedha. Hotuba zao zimegusia mambo ya kimsingi yanayohusu Wizara yangu. Naomba pia nitoe shukrani zangu za dhati kwa Waheshimiwa Mawaziri wenzangu wote walionitangulia katika kuwasilisha hotuba zao kwa kuzungumzia kwa ufasaha baadhi ya masuala ya Ushirikiano wa Kimataifa wanayoyashughulikia katika Wizara zao. Wizara yangu imekuwa ikishirikiana vyema na kwa karibu sana na Wizara hizi, na mara zote imekuwa ikizingatia ushauri wao kwa umakini mkubwa. 5. Mheshimiwa Spika, napenda pia niwashukuru Waheshimiwa Wajumbe wa Kamati ya Bunge ya Kudumu ya Mambo ya Nje, Ulinzi na Usalama (NUU), chini ya Uenyekiti wa Mhe. Edward Ngoyai Lowassa (Mb.) kwa ushauri wao ambao umekuwa wa msaada mkubwa katika kutekeleza majukumu ya Wizara yangu kwa mafanikio. 6. Mheshimiwa Spika, naomba nimshukuru   Mhe. Mahadhi Juma Maalim (Mb.), Naibu Waziri wa Mambo ya Nje na Ushirikiano wa Kimataifa ambaye ameendelea kuwa wa msaada mkubwa kwangu katika kusimamia utekelezaji wa majukumu ya Wizara. Aidha, namshukuru Katibu Mkuu, Bwana John M. Haule; Naibu Katibu Mkuu, Balozi Rajabu Gamaha, Wakurugenzi wote, Mabalozi wetu pamoja na wafanyakazi wenzangu wote Wizarani na katika Balozi zetu kwa bidii na kujituma kwao ipasavyo katika kutetea na kulinda maslahi ya nchi yetu ndani na nje na pia kwa kufanikisha kwa wakati hotuba hii ya bajeti. 7. Mheshimiwa Spika, nitakuwa mchoyo wa fadhila kama sitawashukuru wapiga kura wangu na wananchi wa Jimbo la Mtama, kwa upendo wao na imani yao kwangu. Napenda pia niwashukuru viongozi wote wa Chama cha Mapinduzi na Serikali wa Mkoa wa Lindi kwa uongozi thabiti na kwa ushirikiano wao mkubwa. Kwa upande wa familia yangu, ningependa kumshukuru sana mke wangu, Dorcas Membe, pamoja na watoto wetu kwa kunitia moyo na nguvu katika shughuli zangu za kila siku.  Mama Membe hayupo pale juu leo kwa sababu yupo nje ya nchi akimuuguza kijana wetu Denis ambaye amefanyiwa upasuaji mkubwa na namtakia afya njema. B. HALI YA DUNIA NA CHANGAMOTO ZILIZOPO 8. Mheshimiwa Spika,  hali ya uchumi na usalama duniani kwa ujumla ni shwari isipokuwa katika maeneo machache ambayo yanahitaji uangalizi wa makini wa jumuiya ya kimataifa. 9. Mheshimiwa Spika, hali ya uchumi katika nchi nyingi duniani, ikiwemo Tanzania, imeendelea kuimarika baada ya kipindi kigumu cha mdororo wa uchumi uliyoikumba dunia mwaka 2008 licha ya baadhi ya nchi kama Ugiriki, Uhispania na Ureno kuendelea kusuasua katika kuimarisha uchumi wao.  Kwa ujumla, hali ya usalama duniani inatia moyo ingawa kuna maeneo machache ambayo yamegubikwa na migogoro ya ndani, iliyosababishwa na shinikizo la kutaka mabadiliko ya kisiasa, kupanda kwa gharama za maisha na ukosefu wa ajira.  Hali hiyo imeleta madhara makubwa katika nchi ambazo hazikuingia katika mageuzi ya kisiasa na kiuchumi yaliyoanza katika miaka ya themanini hadi miaka ya tisini.  Madhara hayo ni pamoja na vifo vya raia, ongezeko la wakimbizi, uharibifu wa miundombinu, kuzorota kwa shughuli za uzalishaji na hivyo kuongezeka kwa umaskini na hatari ya kuibuka kwa vitendo vipya vya kigaidi.  Wizara yangu imeendelea kufuatilia na kushiriki kikamilifu katika michakato ya kutafuta suluhu ya kudumu ya migogoro hiyo. Hali ya kisiasa na kiusalama barani Afrika 10. Mheshimiwa Spika, kwa ujumla, hali ya kisiasa na kiusalama Barani Afrika katika kipindi cha mwaka mmoja sasa, ni nzuri isipokuwa katika nchi za Somalia, Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, Tunisia, Misri na Libya ambako hali ya usalama siyo ya kuridhisha na hali ya kisiasa bado haijakaa sawa.  Hali hiyo imesababishwa na matukio mbalimbali ambayo sasa nitayapitia kwa ufupi. 11. Mheshimiwa Spika, eneo la ukanda wa Mashariki ya Kati na Afrika ya Kaskazini limekumbwa na machafuko makubwa yaliyobatizwa jina la Mapinduzi ya Yasmini (Jasmine Revolution) kwa upande wa Tunisia au kwingineko kama Chemichemi ya Uarabuni (Arab Spring). Nchi za Misri, Libya, Oman, Jordan, Syria, Yemen na Bahrain zimekumbwa na vuguvugu hili ambalo limekuwa na madhara na matokeo tofauti. 12. Mheshimiwa Spika, kama ambavyo nimewahi kueleza huko nyuma, sababu zilizochangia machafuko hayo ni nyingi na hakuna majawabu mepesi na wala hakuna jawabu moja linalokidhi hoja ya matukio yote. Lililo dhahiri ni kuwa baada ya nchi kama Tunisia na Misri kufanikiwa kuziondoa Serikali zao zilizokuwa madarakani kwa njia ya amani, bado nchi hizo hazijawa na hali ya utulivu wa kisiasa na kiusalama kwa sababu ya kugombania madaraka. 13. Mheshimiwa Spika, machafuko hayo yameleta athari mbalimbali kwa bara la Afrika na dunia kwa ujumla. Athari hizo zinatokana na ukweli kuwa nchi za Afrika ya Kaskazini hususan Libya ni wawekezaji barani Afrika na wachangiaji wakubwa katika bajeti ya Umoja wa Afrika. Kuingia kwa nchi hizo katika machafuko kunaweza kuathiri bajeti ya Umoja wa Afrika (UA) na uwekezaji katika baadhi ya nchi za Afrika. Pamoja na hayo, hali ya usalama katika eneo la Kaskazini mwa Afrika itaendelea kuwa ya wasiwasi kutokana na hali ya usalama nchini Libya kutotengamaa hadi sasa. Hali hii inaweza kuleta machafuko katika nchi nyingine za Kaskazini mwa Afrika. Kwa upande wa uchumi, machafuko haya yatachangia katika kuongezeka kwa bei ya mafuta kutokana na kupungua kwa uzalishaji wake na hivyo kuathiri uchumi wa nchi zinazoagiza mafuta kama Tanzania. Tanzania, inaungana na wadau wote kuunga mkono jitihada za kuhakikisha kuwa nchi hizi zinavuka katika mtihani huu kwa njia ya amani. 14. Mheshimiwa Spika, tofauti na maandamano ya raia wa Tunisia na Misri yaliyoendeshwa kwa njia ya amani, hali haikuwa hivyo nchini Libya. Maandamano nchini Libya yalichukua sura ya uasi na ghasia kwa waandamanaji kutumia silaha za kivita na hivyo kusababisha mapigano kati yao na majeshi ya serikali. Hali hiyo imesababisha, madhara makubwa nchini Libya ikiwa ni pamoja na raia kupoteza maisha, kuikimbia nchi yao, miundombinu na mali nyingi kuharibiwa vibaya. 15. Mheshimiwa Spika, kutokana na hatua zilizochukuliwa na majeshi ya Serikali dhidi ya waasi, jumuiya ya kimataifa ilianza kuingiwa na hofu na hivyo kuamua kuingilia kati mgogoro huo. Jumuiya ya Nchi za Kiarabu ilisimamisha uanachama wa Libya na baadaye, Baraza la Usalama la Umoja wa Mataifa lilipitisha Azimio Na. 1973 la tarehe 16 Februari, 2011 lililopiga marufuku ndege kuruka katika anga ya Libya (imposition of No fly zone).  Aidha, Azimio hilo liliitaka jumuiya ya kimataifa kuchukua hatua za kulinda mali na raia wa Libya dhidi ya mashambulizi ya vikosi vya Serikali ya Libya. 16. Mheshimiwa Spika, pamoja na nia njema ya Azimio Na. 1973, ambalo Tanzania na Umoja wetu wa Afrika uliliunga mkono, utekelezaji wake umevuka mipaka ya madhumuni ya Azimio hilo.  Mashambulizi yanayofanywa na majeshi ya Umoja wa Kujihami wa Nchi za Magharibi (NATO) na waasi wa Libya pamoja na majibu ya mapigo yanayotolewa na Majeshi ya Serikali yanaua watu, yanaharibu miundombinu na mali za raia kinyume na Azimio Na. 1973.  Kutokana na hali hiyo, Tanzania, Umoja wa Afrika, Nchi Zisizofungamana na Upande Wowote na baadhi ya nchi za Kiarabu, zililaani na kupinga utekelezaji wa Azimio hilo la Baraza la Umoja wa Mataifa na kutoa wito wa kusitisha mashambulizi ili kutoa fursa ya mazungumzo kufanyika kwa pande zote zinazohusika na kumaliza mgogoro huo. Hali ya maradhi barani Afrika 17. Mheshimiwa Spika, Afrika bado inaendelea kukumbwa na maradhi sugu ya Malaria na Ukimwi.  Ugonjwa wa Malaria unaua watu 700,000 kwa mwaka Barani Afrika na kati ya hao, vifo 595,000 ni vya watoto chini ya umri wa miaka mitano.  Kila mwaka, Afrika ina wastani wa wagonjwa wa malaria milioni 176 wanaopatiwa matibabu. Aidha, Bara la Afrika linapoteza dola za kimarekani bilioni 12 kwa ajili ya kununua madawa na vyandarua pamoja na matibabu ya malaria. 18. Mheshimiwa Spika, kwa kutambua uzito na ukubwa wa tatizo hili, Umoja wa Afrika umeamua kwenda vitani kupambana na ugonjwa huu. Mhe. Rais Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete ambaye sasa ni Mwenyekiti wa viongozi 39 wa Umoja wa Afrika waliopania kutokomeza ugonjwa wa Malaria Barani Afrika, yeye na wenzake wanafanya kazi kubwa ya kuunganisha nguvu za Mashirika mbalimbali Duniani yanayojihusisha na utokomezaji wa malaria, kuelekeza nguvu zao Afrika kwa lengo la kutokomeza na siyo kutibu tu malaria. 19. Mheshimiwa Spika, sambamba na Malaria, yapo maradhi sugu ya Ukimwi Barani Afrika.  Hadi sasa, ukimwi umeua watu milioni 22.4 Barani Afrika tangu uanze mwaka 1984.  Kati ya hao watoto na akina mama wapatao milioni 11.2 wamepoteza maisha yao.  Tuna wagonjwa milioni 5 Barani Afrika wanaopatiwa matibabu na idadi ya watu wanaoambukizwa ukimwi kwa siku Barani Afrika wanakaribia 5,000. 20. Mheshimiwa Spika, ugonjwa huu hauna dawa.  Dawa ni sisi wenyewe.  Tuendelee kuelimishana na tubadili tabia zetu. C. JUHUDI ZA UMOJA WA AFRIKA KATIKA KUTATUA MIGOGORO Libya 21. Mheshimiwa Spika, tofauti na maoni ya baadhi ya watu kuwa mgogoro wa Libya ulipoibuka, Umoja wa Afrika ulikaa kimya, siyo ya kweli. Umoja wa Afrika ulichukua hatua mbalimbali ikiwemo kuunda Kamati Maalum ya Usuluhishi inayojumuisha viongozi wa nchi tano za Mauritania, Afrika Kusini, Uganda, Mali na Congo ili kutathmini hali ya kisiasa nchini Libya na kukutana na pande zinazohusika kwenye mgogoro huo kwa lengo la kutafuta ufumbuzi kwa njia ya amani. 22. Mheshimiwa Spika, Kamati hiyo ilitengeneza na kuwasilisha Mpango wa Amani wa kusuluhisha mgogoro wa Libya (AU Peace Roadmap) na ulikuwa na vipengele vitano ambavyo ni:- kuwalinda raia na kusitisha mapigano; utoaji wa misaada ya kibinadamu kwa raia na wafanyakazi wa kigeni; kuanzisha majadiliano ya kisiasa na pande zinazohusika ili kufikia makubaliano ya kumaliza mgogoro; kuanzisha kipindi cha mpito ambacho kitahusisha pande zote; na kuridhia mageuzi ya kisiasa ambayo yatakidhi matakwa ya Walibya wote. 23. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wakuu wa Nchi na Serikali wa Umoja wa Afrika walifanya mkutano maalum tarehe 25 Mei, 2011 mjini Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, na kusisitiza mshikamano kwa nchi za Afrika katika kutetea na kulinda uhuru na umoja wa Libya. Aidha, viongozi hao walilaani mashambulizi ya NATO na kutaka yasitishwe mara moja ili kuipa nafasi zaidi Afrika kutekeleza mpango wa Amani (Road map) uliowasilishwa kwao na Kamati Maalum ya Umoja wa Afrika.  Afrika inaamini kwa dhati kuwa amani ya kudumu nchini Libya haiwezi kupatikana kwa nguvu za kijeshi. Msimamo huo ulisisitizwa tena na Wakuu wa Nchi na Serikali katika mkutano wao wa kumi na saba (17) uliofanyika Malabo, Equatorial Guinea mwishoni mwa Juni 2011. Napenda kuchukua nafasi hii kusisitiza msimamo wa Tanzania kuwa pamoja na nia nzuri ya Azimio Na. 1973 la Baraza la Usalama la Umoja wa Mataifa, Tanzania kama ilivyo kwa nchi zote za Umoja wa Afrika hazikubaliani na utekelezaji wake na hatima yake.  Tunazitaka pande zote zinazopigana, yaani NATO, Majeshi ya Waasi na ya Serikali kusitisha mapigano hayo mara moja na kuipa Afrika nafasi ya kumaliza mgogoro huo kwa njia ya amani. Côte d’Ivoire 24. Mheshimiwa Spika, mgogoro wa Côte d’Ivoire ulihitimishwa baada ya Mhe. Alassane Ouatara kuapishwa tarehe 9 Mei, 2011 kuwa Rais mpya wa nchi hiyo kufuatia ushindi katika uchaguzi uliofanyika tarehe 28 Novemba, 2010 na kupingwa na baadaye kuondolewa kijeshi kwa Rais aliyeng’ang’ania madarakani. Itakumbukwa kuwa Mhe. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, alitoa mchango mkubwa kama mmoja wa wajumbe wa Kamati Maalum ya Umoja wa Afrika iliyoundwa kushughulikia mgogoro huo. Kutokana na mafanikio hayo, Tanzania inaendela kupata heshima kubwa katika masuala ya utatuzi na usuluhishi wa migogoro Barani Afrika.  Aidha, uzoefu wa kilichotokea Côte d’Ivoire unatufundisha kuwa Umoja wa Afrika unaweza kumaliza migogoro yake pale inapoachwa huru na bila kuingiliwa katika kushughulikia migogoro hiyo. Sudan ya Kusini 25. Mheshimiwa Spika, ninafurahi kulieleza Bunge lako Tukufu kwamba hatimaye Sudan ya Kusini imekuwa Taifa huru tarehe 9 Julai, 2011 na hivyo kuongeza idadi ya nchi huru za Afrika kufikia hamsini na nne (54). Nachukua fursa hii kuwapongeza tena Rais Salva Kiir Mayardit na wananchi wote wa nchi mpya ya Sudan ya Kusini kwa kuvuna walichopanda; uhuru uliotokana na jasho na damu yao.  Aidha, Tanzania itaikaribisha kwa mikono miwili nchi ya Sudan ya Kusini itakapoamua kujiunga na Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki.  Tanzania itamkumbuka daima mwasisi na mwanamapinduzi marehemu John Garanq kwa kuanzisha mapambano yaliyoleta Uhuru Sudan ya Kusini. 26. Mheshimiwa Spika, aidha, naomba kuchukua fursa hii kumpongeza Rais mstaafu wa Awamu ya Tatu ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Mhe. Benjamin William Mkapa, kwa kuongoza jopo la watu watatu mashuhuri walioteuliwa na Katibu Mkuu wa Umoja wa Mataifa kusimamia mchakato wa kura ya maoni nchini humo.  Ni matumaini yangu kwamba uhuru uliopatikana utapanua nyanja za ushirikiano kati ya nchi yetu na Sudan ya Kusini. Hivyo, natoa rai kwa Watanzania wenzangu wachangamkie, bila kuchelewa, fursa zilizopo katika taifa hilo jipya. Wizara yangu itatoa ushirikiano utakaohitajika ili kufanikisha azma hiyo. Somalia 27. Mheshimiwa Spika, hali ya usalama nchini Somalia katika siku za hivi karibuni inaleta matumaini baada ya vikosi vya usalama vya Serikali ya Mpito ya Somalia na Umoja wa Afrika (AMISOM) kufanya mashambulizi makali dhidi ya wanamgambo wa Al-Shabaab. Kutokana na mashambulizi hayo, maeneo mengi yaliyokuwa ngome ya Al-Shabaab mjini Mogadishu yapo chini ya Serikali ya mpito na hivyo kusaidia kuimarisha hali ya usalama na usambazaji wa misaada ya kibinadamu. 28. Mheshimiwa Spika, changamoto kubwa hivi sasa kuhusiana na mgogoro wa Somalia ni uhaba wa askari wa kulinda amani. Tanzania inazisihi nchi zilizoahidi kuchangia vikosi vya kulinda amani zitekeleze ahadi zao. Aidha, tunatoa wito kwa Umoja wa Mataifa kuhakikisha kuwa Azimio lake la kuongeza vikosi vya AMISOM kutoka 8,000 hadi kufikia 12,000 linatekelezwa haraka iwezekanavyo. 29. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania inaendelea kushirikiana na jumuiya ya kimataifa katika juhudi za kutafuta suluhu ya mgogoro wa Somalia. Mwezi Aprili 2011, Rais wa Somalia Mhe. Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed alifanya ziara hapa nchini, na kuonana na mwenyeji wake Mhe. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambapo mchakato wa amani nchini Somalia ulijadiliwa. 30. Mheshimiwa Spika, kuzorota kwa amani na usalama kwa muda mrefu nchini Somalia, kumezusha baa la njaa nchini humo na kuwafanya baadhi ya vijana wa kisomali kujihusisha na vitendo vya uharamia kwenye pwani ya Afrika Mashariki. Matukio ya uharamia yanazidi kuongezeka na hivyo kuathiri uchumi wa nchi yetu. Athari hizo ni pamoja na; kupanda kwa bei za bidhaa kutokana na kuongezeka kwa gharama za usafirishaji. Gharama hizo zinatokana na mahitaji ya ulinzi kwa ajili ya kusindikiza meli za bidhaa na kufanya doria katika eneo hilo, na kuongezeka kwa gharama za bima na meli kulazimika kuzunguka umbali mrefu ili kukwepa maharamia. 31. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania haiwezi kukwepa athari za uharamia kutokana na mahali ilipo kijiografia. Hivyo, Wizara yangu inashirikiana na wadau wengine, zikiwemo nchi kubwa na zenye uwezo, kuongeza nguvu ya kukabiliana na changamoto hiyo. Juhudi hizi ni endelevu na zinahitaji ushirikiano mpana. D. UMOJA WA MATAIFA 32. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania imeendelea kushiriki katika shughuli za Umoja wa Mataifa hususan katika masuala ya amani na usalama, haki za binadamu na maendeleo.  Ushiriki huu wa Tanzania umetuletea sifa nyingi pamoja na kuijenga taswira ya nchi yetu katika medani za kimataifa. 33. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika eneo la amani na usalama, Wizara yangu ikishirikiana na Wizara ya Ulinzi na Jeshi la Kujenga Taifa pamoja na Wizara ya Mambo ya Ndani ya Nchi, imeendelea kushiriki kikamilifu katika ulinzi wa amani chini ya mwavuli wa Umoja wa Mataifa.  Hivi sasa nchi yetu ni moja ya wachangiaji muhimu wa maafisa na askari kwenye misheni za kulinda amani za Umoja wa Mataifa, wakiwemo wanajeshi, polisi na maafisa magereza. Wote hao wameonyesha uhodari, utii na umakini mkubwa katika kutekeleza majukumu yao na hivyo kuipatia nchi yetu sifa kubwa Duniani. Kwa kutambua mchango wetu mkubwa hususan kule Darfur, Meja Jenerali Wynjones Mathew Kisamba, Mkuu wa Kamandi ya Majeshi ya Ardhini wa jeshi la Wananchi wa Tanzania (JWTZ), ameteuliwa kuwa Naibu Kamanda wa Vikosi Mahuluti vya Umoja wa Afrika na Umoja wa Mataifa huko Darfur (UNAMID). Naomba tuungane kumpongeza yeye, pamoja na maafisa na askari wetu wote wanaotumikia Umoja wa Mataifa kwa kazi nzuri wanayoifanya. 34. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania ilishiriki kikamilifu katika Mikutano mikubwa ya Kimataifa kama vile Jukwaa la Kimataifa la Uchumi (World Economic Forum) huko Davos, Switzerland, mwezi Januari, 2011 na Cape Town, Afrika Kusini mwezi Mei, 2011 ambapo nchi yetu ilipata fursa ya kunadi mkakati wake wa kuboresha kilimo nchini unaojulikana kama “The Southern Agriculture Growth Corridor of Tanzania – SAGCOT ”.  Aidha, mikutano mingine ambayo Tanzania ilishiriki kikamilifu ni pamoja na ule uliohusu Malengo ya Milenia, uliofanyika jijini New York mwezi Septemba, 2010 na ule wa Nchi Maskini Sana Duniani uliofanyika Istanbul, Uturuki mwezi Mei 2011. 35. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania imeendelea kupewa heshima kubwa na Umoja wa Mataifa baada ya Katibu Mkuu wa Umoja huo, kumteua Mhe. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, kuwa Mwenyekiti Mwenza wa Tume kuhusu Afya ya Akina Mama na Watoto (Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health). Tume hiyo ilipewa jukumu la kuunda mfumo wa kufuatilia ahadi na fedha zilizotolewa na mataifa na vyombo mbalimbali vya kimataifa na namna zitakavyotumika kuboresha Afya ya Akina Mama na Watoto. Tume hiyo imekamilisha kazi yake na itawasilisha taarifa rasmi katika Kikao kijacho cha Baraza Kuu la Umoja wa Mataifa mwezi Septemba 2011. 36. Mheshimiwa Spika, kupitishwa kwa Mpango wa Umoja wa Mataifa wa Misaada na Maendeleo nchini (United Nations Development Assistance Plan) utakaotekelezwa kuanzia Julai, 2011 hadi Juni, 2015 katika kugharamia miradi mbalimbali ni kielelezo kingine cha mafanikio ya Mradi wa Majaribio unaotekelezwa nchini na Umoja wa Mataifa ujulikanao kama “One UN”. 37. Mheshimiwa Spika, hakika tunajivunia heshima kubwa ambayo tumepewa na Umoja wa Mataifa, kupitia kwa Bwana Ban Ki-moon, Katibu Mkuu wa Umoja huo.  Tunampongeza kwa dhati kwa kuchaguliwa tena kwa kishindo kuongoza Sekretarieti ya Umoja wa Mataifa kwa muhula mwingine wa miaka mitano. Tunaahidi kumpa ushirikiano wa kutosha katika kutekeleza majukumu yake. E.  KUNDI LA NCHI ZISIZOFUNGAMANA NA UPANDE WOWOTE (NAM) 38. Mheshimwia Spika, ninayo furaha kulieleza Bunge lako tukufu kuwa Kundi la Nchi Zisizofungamana na Upande Wowote (NAM) linatimiza miaka hamsini (50) tangu kuanzishwa kwake.  Kundi hili limeendelea kuwa sauti ya nchi zilizo katika Ukanda wa Kusini mwa Dunia katika kukabiliana na ubabe wa mataifa makubwa. Mikutano ya NAM imeendelea kutoa fursa nzuri kwa nchi wanachama kukutana na kuendeleza ushirikiano wa kiuchumi na kijamii.  Sherehe za miaka 50 ya NAM zitahitimishwa mjini Belgrade, Serbia (zamani ikijulikana kama Yugoslavia) mwezi Septemba 2011. Kama historia inavyotukumbusha, NAM ilizaliwa jijini Belgrade mwaka 1961. F.  JUMUIYA YA MADOLA     39. Mheshimiwa Spika, hivi sasa Wizara yangu ipo katika mchakato wa maandalizi ya ushiriki wa Tanzana katika Mkutano wa Wakuu wa Nchi na Serikali wa nchi za Jumuiya ya Madola (CHOGM) utakaofanyika Perth, Australia kuanzia tarehe 28 hadi 30 Oktoba 2011. Kaulimbiu rasmi ya mkutano huo ni “Building National Resilience, Building Global Resilience”. 40. Mheshimiwa Spika, Kaulimbiu hii inalenga zaidi katika kutekeleza shabaha mbalimbali za Jumuiya hiyo ambazo ni kuimarisha demokrasia, utawala wa sheria na utawala bora miongoni mwa nchi wanachama. Aidha, changamoto mbalimbali zinazoikabili dunia, mathalan, hali ya chakula, kusimamia maliasili, maendeleo endelevu, mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa pamoja na namna ya kujinasua kutoka katika mdororo wa kiuchumi ulioikumba dunia mwaka 2008 zitajadiliwa. G. UMOJA WA AFRIKA NA JUMUIYA ZA KIKANDA Umoja wa Afrika 41. Mheshimiwa Spika, Umoja wa Afrika unaendelea na mchakato wa kubadili Kamisheni yake kuwa Mamlaka kufuatia maagizo yaliyotolewa na Wakuu wa Nchi na Serikali za Umoja huo kwenye kikao chao kilichofanyika Sirte, Libya mwezi Julai 2009. Hatua inayoendelea hivi sasa ni kukamilisha Itifaki ya Bunge la Afrika na Mahakama ya Afrika. Kwa ujumla Umoja wa Afrika unaendelea kuimarika licha ya changamoto mbalimbali zinazolikabili bara la Afrika hususan migogoro, umaskini na maradhi. Umoja huo unafanya kila linalowezekana, kwa kushirikiana na jumuiya ya kimataifa na wadau wengine, kukabiliana na changamoto hizo. Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki (EAC) 42. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania inaendelea kushiriki kikamilifu katika shughuli za Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki. Ushiriki huu umeleta manufaa mbalimbali katika nyanja za kijamii, kiuchumi na kisiasa. Katika kupanua wigo wa ushirikiano, nchi wanachama wa Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki wamepitisha Itifaki ya Uratibu wa Sera za Mambo ya Nje kwa Nchi Wanachama wa Jumuiya. Itifaki hiyo itazipa Nchi Wanachama fursa ya kuendeleza ushirikiano katika masuala ya kidiplomasia na kikonseli kupitia Balozi zetu zilizopo nje ya eneo la Jumuiya yetu. Wizara yangu itaendelea kushiriki na kushauri vilivyo, hususan jinsi ya kutengeneza mfumo bora wa kuhakikisha Itifaki hii inatekelezwa bila kuathiri maslahi muhimu ya Taifa letu. Jumuiya ya Maendeleo ya Nchi za Kusini mwa Afrika (SADC) 43. Mheshimiwa Spika, Tanzania imeendelea kuwa mstari wa mbele katika kuhakikisha demokrasia inashamiri katika eneo la SADC. Ustawi wa demokrasia umesaidia kudumisha mazingira mazuri ya biashara, uwekezaji, amani na utulivu katika nchi za SADC. Ukomavu wa demokrasia nchini, uliojidhihirisha kupitia Uchaguzi Mkuu wa mwaka 2010, ambao ulishuhudiwa na waangalizi zaidi ya 100 kutoka nchi za SADC na kuthibitishwa kuwa ulikuwa huru na wa haki, umezidi kuijengea heshima kubwa nchi yetu, ndani na nje ya bara letu la Afrika. 44. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika kipindi cha miaka hamsini (50) ya uhuru, nchi yetu imejijengea heshima ya pekee katika harakati za ukombozi duniani, hususan Kusini mwa Afrika. Tumeendelea kuwa wasimamizi wa haki na usawa na hatujawahi kusita kuidai haki hiyo kwa niaba ya wale walionyanyaswa, kubaguliwa, kukandamizwa na kutawaliwa. Vilevile, nchi yetu imekuwa tegemeo la wengi katika usuluhishi na utatuzi wa migogoro iliyopo katika baadhi ya nchi za SADC. Wizara yangu kwa kushirikiana na wadau wengine imeendelea kuhakikisha heshima hiyo inadumishwa. 45. Mheshimiwa Spika, kwa kutambua mchango wetu, SADC ilimtunuku Mtanzania mwenzetu Brigedia Jenerali mstaafu, Balozi Hashim Iddi Mbita nishani ya SADC ya Sir. Seretse Khama (Sir. Seretse Khama SADC Award) kwa mchango wake katika harakati za ukombozi wa Mwafrika. Tukio hili la kihistoria lilifanyika sanjari na maadhimisho ya miaka 30 ya SADC pamoja na ufunguzi wa jengo la Makao Makuu ya SADC lililopo mjini Gaborone, Botswana mwezi Novemba 2010. Kiongozi mwingine aliyewahi kutunukiwa tuzo hiyo ni Mhe. Kenneth Kaunda, Rais wa Kwanza wa Jamhuri ya Zambia. 46. Mheshimiwa Spika, juhudi za kuziunganisha Jumuiya za SADC, EAC na COMESA ili kuwa na eneo moja huru la kibiashara zinaendelea. Mkutano Mkuu wa Pili wa Wakuu wa Nchi na Serikali kutoka nchi zilizo katika eneo linalokusudiwa kuanzishwa ushirikiano, waliweka saini mkataba wa kuanzisha Soko Huru la Pamoja mjini Sandton, Afrika Kusini tarehe 12 Juni, 2011 na wakazindua rasmi majadiliano kuhusu soko hilo. Soko hili litajumuisha nchi 27 kati ya 54 za Afrika ikiwemo Sudan ya Kusini, zenye wakazi wasiopungua milioni 700 na pato la taifa la jumla la takriban dola za kimarekani trilioni 1.6. Changamoto iliyo mbele yetu ni kujipanga vyema ili tuweze kunufaika na matunda ya ushirikiano huo. H. UTEKELEZAJI WA DIPLOMASIA YA UCHUMI 47. Mheshimiwa Spika, pamoja na ufinyu wa bajeti, Wizara yangu imeendelea kuyapa uzito stahiki masuala ya diplomasia ya uchumi ambayo kimsingi yanahitaji fedha nyingi kuyatekeleza. Katika kufanikisha hilo, Wizara imejishughulisha katika maeneo ya kutafuta wawekezaji, kuhamasisha watalii na kutafuta masoko ya bidhaa zetu. Aidha, Wizara imeendelea kuratibu ziara za viongozi wetu nje ya nchi na ushiriki wa Tanzania katika Tume za Kudumu za Pamoja za Ushirikiano (JPCs). 48. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika mwaka wa fedha 2010/2011 viongozi wakuu wa kitaifa walifanya ziara na kuhudhuria mikutano katika nchi mbalimbali duniani zenye lengo la kukuza diplomasia ya uchumi, kukuza ushirikiano na kuimarisha ujirani mwema baina ya Tanzania na nchi nyingine pamoja na taasisi na mashirika ya kimataifa. Aidha, katika kipindi hiki viongozi kutoka nchi mbalimbali pamoja na taasisi za kikanda na kimataifa waliitembelea Tanzania. 49. Mheshimiwa Spika, matokeo ya ziara hizi za viongozi wetu na viongozi kutoka nje, ni pamoja na kusainiwa kwa mikataba ya ushirikiano, kutangaza fursa za uwekezaji na vivutio vya utalii nchini. Kwa mfano; ziara ya Mhe. Lula Da Silva, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Brazil aliyoifanya mwezi Julai, 2010 ilifanikisha kusainiwa kwa mkataba wa makubaliano kati ya shirika la petroli la Brazil (Petrobras) na Shirika la Maendeleo ya Petroli la Tanzania (TPDC); mkataba wa makubaliano kati ya Ofisi ya Makamu wa Rais (Mazingira) ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na Wizara ya Mazingira ya Jamhuri ya Brazil kuhusu kupunguza hewa chafu itokanayo na ukataji miti na uharibifu wa mazingira na makubaliano ya ushirikiano katika masomo ya Diplomasia baina ya Chuo cha Diplomasia cha Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na Taasisi ya Ruo Branco ya Jamhuri ya Brazil. Na mwisho, mazungumzo ya Tanzania kufutiwa deni lake na Brazil yalifanyika. 50. Mheshimiwa Spika, mfano mwingine ni ziara ya mwezi Aprili, 2011 ya Mhe. Dkt. Manmohan Singh, Waziri Mkuu wa India, iliyopelekea makubaliano ya awali ya Ushirikiano wa pamoja baina ya Wizara ya Afya na Ustawi wa Jamii, Bodi ya Udhamini ya Mfuko wa Taifa wa Hifadhi ya Jamii (NSSF) na Hospitali ya Apollo ya India kuhusu kuanzisha hospitali kubwa ya kisasa itakayokuwa inatoa huduma za magonjwa ya moyo, ubongo na mifupa na Mpangokazi wa pamoja baina ya Shirika la Viwanda Vidogo Vidogo la Tanzania (SIDO) na Shirika la Viwanda Vidogo Vidogo la India. Aidha, katika ziara hiyo, Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na Serikali ya Jamhuri ya India zilifikia makubaliano ya mikataba ya kutolipisha kodi mara mbili na kuzuia ukwepaji wa kodi ya mapato. 51. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara imeendelea kuratibu na kusimamia utekelezaji wa Mikataba mbalimbali baina ya Tanzania na nchi nyingine duniani, Mikataba ya Kikanda na Mikataba ya Uenyeji. Katika kipindi cha 2010/2011, Wizara yangu imesimamia majadiliano yaliyofanikisha kusainiwa kwa mikataba ishirini (20) katika nyanja za biashara, mazingira, sayansi na teknolojia, utamaduni, usafirishaji na haki za binadamu. Tunatarajia Mikataba yote iliyosainiwa na mingine itakuwa ni chachu ya maendeleo kwa Tanzania. Natoa rai kwa taasisi za Serikali na nyinginezo zijipange vizuri kufanikisha utekelezaji wa Mikataba hii kwa manufaa ya Watanzania. Kuwashirikisha Watanzania wanaoishi Ughaibuni (Diaspora) 52. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara yangu tayari imeunda Idara ya Diaspora na tumefanikiwa kuwafikia kwa wingi Watanzania walioko nje kupitia mikutano na majukwaa mbalimbali na kupata maoni yao. Kwa upande wa Serikali ya Mapinduzi ya Zanzibar, Mhe. Rais wa Zanzibar ameunda Kitengo cha Diaspora kinachoongozwa na Naibu Katibu Mkuu ambacho kipo chini ya ofisi yake na tunashirikiana nacho kwa karibu sana. Aidha, yapo maelewano na wadau mbalimbali ikiwemo Wizara ya Mambo ya Ndani ya Nchi, Benki Kuu, Kituo cha Uwekezaji, Mamlaka ya Mapato, Shirika la Nyumba la Taifa, Mfuko wa Uwekezaji (UTT), Shirika la Taifa la Hifadhi ya Jamii na wadau nje ya Serikali kama Benki za CRDB, Benki ya Exim (Tanzania), Commercial Bank of Africa, na Mawakala Binafsi wa Ajira (Recruitment Agencies). Maelewano haya yanasaidia katika mkakati mzima wa kujenga mazingira ya kisheria na kisera ya kuwezesha Diaspora kushiriki kikamilifu katika kuleta maendeleo ya nchi yetu. 53. Mheshimiwa Spika, hatua iliyo mbele yetu ni kwa Wizara yangu kushirikiana na Wizara ya Mambo ya Ndani ya Nchi na Mwanasheria Mkuu, kujenga mazingira mazuri kwa wanadiaspora na kuondoa kero ambazo zinaathiri jitihada zao za uchangiaji katika maendeleo ya nchi yetu.  Hivi sasa Wizara zetu zinajiandaa kuwasilisha Waraka kwenye Baraza la Mawaziri, ili ujadiliwe na kisha kwa wakati muafaka, Wizara ya Mambo ya Ndani ya nchi kutakiwa kuwasilisha rasmi mbele ya Bunge lako Tukufu Muswada wa Marekebisho ya Sheria ya Uraia kwa majadiliano. Kwa kuwa mchakato wa suala hili unagusa Katiba, ni azma yetu kuona kwamba suala hili linakwenda pamoja na mchakato wa Katiba mpya. Ni dhamira ya Wizara yangu kuona suala la Uraia wa nchi mbili linazinduliwa sanjari na Katiba Mpya ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Mchakato wa Kujitathmini kwa Utawala Bora Barani Afrika (APRM) 54. Mheshimiwa Spika, mchakato wa APRM nchini Tanzania sasa unaelekea ukingoni baada ya kusimama mwaka jana kutokana na uchaguzi mkuu wa mwaka 2010. Tunatarajia kupokea timu ya wataalamu kutoka makao makuu ya APRM mwezi Agosti, 2011 kwa ajili ya maandalizi ya tathmini itakayofanyika mwezi Septemba 2011. Inatarajiwa kuwa, taarifa kamili ya Tanzania itawasilishwa katika mkutano mkuu wa nchi wanachama wa APRM mwezi Julai 2012. Huduma za Kikonseli 55. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara yangu ndiyo yenye dhamana ya kulinda maslahi ya Watanzania wanaoishi nje ya nchi. Kufuatia machafuko yaliyotokea hivi karibuni katika nchi za Mashariki ya Kati na Kaskazini mwa Afrika, hatua za makusudi na za haraka zilichukuliwa ili kuhakikisha kuwa Watanzania wanaoishi katika nchi hizo hawapatwi na madhara yoyote. Hatua zilizochukuliwa ni pamoja na kuwarudisha nyumbani watanzania themanini na tatu (83) kutoka Misri na Wanane (8) kutoka Libya; kuufunga kwa muda Ubalozi wa Tanzania nchini Misri, kukusanya taarifa zote muhimu na kuziwasilisha Wizarani; kuwaita na kuzungumza na wawakilishi wa nchi husika hapa Tanzania ili kufahamu kwa kina mustakabali na hatua ambazo Serikali zao zinachukua katika kukabiliana na machafuko hayo. Aidha, Wizara imetoa taarifa kwenye vyombo vya habari juu ya maendeleo ya hali ya Watanzania na hali ya usalama katika nchi hizo. 56. Mheshimiwa Spika, hali hii inatoa changamoto kwa Serikali kuchukua hatua za haraka katika kuwaokoa raia wake kila inapobidi. Hivyo, ninatoa wito kwa Watanzania wanaoishi nchi za nje kujiorodhesha kupitia jumuiya zao katika Ofisi za Balozi zetu ili kuwafikia kwa urahisi kila inapohitajika. Heshima ya Tanzania Duniani 57. Mheshimiwa Spika, kama nilivyoeleza awali nchi yetu imeendelea kujijengea heshima kubwa Kimataifa, kama Taifa lililokomaa katika nyanja za Utawala Bora, Usuluhishi wa Migogoro, Demokrasia, Utawala wa Sheria, utawala unaojali haki za binadamu na Utawala unaowekeza kwa watu wake.  Hali hii imefanya nchi yetu kuzidi kuaminiwa na mataifa mengine, Taasisi na Mashirika ya Kimataifa. 58. Mheshimiwa Spika,  kutokana na hayo, Umoja wa Mataifa umemteua Rais wetu kuwa Mwenyekiti mwenza wa Kamisheni ya kupunguza vifo vya watoto na akina mama na pia imemteua Meja Jenerali Kisamba kuwa Naibu Kamanda wa Majeshi ya Umoja wa Mataifa ya kulinda Amani Darfur, Sudan. Aidha, viongozi wa Umoja wa Afrika wamepitisha jina la mtanzania Ludovick Utouh, Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali kuwa mgombea pekee wa Bara la Afrika atakayewania nafasi ya ujumbe wa Bodi ya ukaguzi ya Umoja wa Mataifa kwenye uchaguzi utakaofanyika mwezi Septemba mwaka huu New York. Tuna hakika kabisa ya kushinda.  Naye mtanzania Prof. Chris Peter Maina amepitishwa na viongozi hao hao wa Umoja wa Afrika kugombea nafasi ya ujumbe wa Kamati ya Sheria ya Umoja wa Mataifa.  Vile vile, Umoja wa Afrika kwa Kauli moja umepitisha jina la Tanzania kugombea nafasi ya ujumbe kwenye Shirika la Kimataifa la Nguvu za Atomic (International Atomic Energy Agency). 59. Mheshimiwa Spika, nayasema haya yote ili kuwaeleza watanzania kuwa nchi yetu inaheshimika sana Duniani na tuwapuuze wale wachache wanaobeza kuwa nchi hii haiheshimiki Duniani!  Tunaheshimika sana. 60. Mheshimiwa Spika,  hivi karibuni, Taasisi ya Kitaalamu ya ”Fund for Peace” ilitoa tathmini yake ambayo huitoa kila mwaka kuonyesha hali ya Usalama duniani.  Tathmini hiyo huzingatia vigezo kumi na mbili vikiwemo idadi ya watu, watu wanaolazimika kuwa wakimbizi katika nchi; uhasama na visasi baina ya makundi; hali ya haki za binadamu na utawala wa sheria; kukubalika kwa Serikali; mwenendo wa vyombo vya Usalama; taswira ya utumishi wa umma; tofauti za mgawanyo wa keki ya taifa; tofauti za matabaka ya umangimeza (factionalized elites); na uwezo wa kuhimili shinikizo kutoka nje.  Katika ripoti yao ya mwaka 2011, Tanzania ni moja kati ya nchi zilizoonekana kuwa salama zaidi dhidi ya hatari za kiusalama.  Tanzania ni nchi ya 65 kati ya nchi 193 duniani na inaongoza nchi zote za Afrika Mashariki na za SADC kwa amani na usalama.  Tuna kila sababu ya kuienzi amani yetu tunapoadhimisha miaka 50 ya uhuru wetu na tusikubali kuruhusu mtu au watu wachache kuvuruga amani nchini. I. UTAWALA NA MAENDELEO YA WATUMISHI WIZARANI NA KWENYE BALOZI ZETU NJE 61. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara ina jumla ya watumishi 440, Kati ya watumishi hao 249 wako Makao Makuu, 19 wako Ofisi ya Mambo ya Nje Zanzibar na 172 wako katika Balozi zetu Nje. Katika mwaka wa fedha 2010/11 Wizara iliajiri jumla ya watumishi wapya 49 kati ya 53 walioidhinishwa. Watumishi 4 ambao walifaulu usaili hawakuweza kujiunga na Wizara kutokana sababu mbalimbali. 62. Mheshimiwa Spika, jumla ya watumishi 29 walipelekwa mafunzoni, kati ya hao 20 walipelekwa mafunzo ya muda mrefu na 9 mafunzo ya muda mfupi ili kuongeza ujuzi katika taaluma zao.  Aidha, jumla ya watumishi 59 walipandishwa vyeo na wengine 12 walithibitishwa kazini katika mwaka wa fedha 2010/11. Wizara itaendelea kusimamia maendeleo ya watumishi na kuboresha maslahi yao kadri hali itakavyoruhusu. 63. Mheshimiwa Spika, pamoja na mafanikio yaliyoelezwa hapo juu, changamoto kubwa inayoikabili Wizara yangu ni ufinyu wa bajeti. Hali hiyo imesababisha Wizara kutofikia ipasavyo malengo ya utekelezaji wa sera ya mambo ya nje. J. UDHIBITI WA MAPATO NA MATUMIZI YA WIZARA 64. Mheshimiwa Spika, kwa mwaka wa fedha 2009/2010, Wizara yangu imeongeza ufanisi katika masuala ya usimamizi wa bajeti na fedha kwa ujumla ambapo kwa mujibu wa Taarifa ya Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali, Balozi nane (8) zilipata Hati Safi za Ukaguzi wa Hesabu ikilinganishwa na Balozi tano (5) zilizopata hati kama hiyo kwa mwaka 2008/2009. Balozi ishirini na moja (21) zilipata Hati safi zenye Masuala ya Msisitizo ikilinganishwa na Balozi ishirini na tatu (23) mwaka 2008/2009. Aidha, Balozi mbili (2) zilipata Hati zenye Shaka ikilinganishwa na Balozi tatu (3) zilizopata Hati kama hiyo mwaka 2008/2009. Kwa mwaka 2009/2010, hakuna Ubalozi uliopata Hati isiyoridhisha ikilinganishwa na Ubalozi mmoja (1) kwa mwaka wa fedha 2008/2009. Wizara yangu itaendelea kusimamia ipasavyo matumizi ya fedha za Serikali Wizarani na katika balozi zake thelathini na mbili (32) kwa misingi ya Sheria, Kanuni na Taratibu zilizopo. 65. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika kudhibiti matumizi ya fedha balozini, tayari Balozi saba (7) zimewekewa Mtandao wa Malipo ya Serikali (Integrated Financial Management System – IFMS). Wizara yangu kwa kushirikiana na HAZINA itaendelea kusimamia utekelezaji wa mpango huo katika Balozi zilizosalia. Vile vile, Wizara imeweka saini mikataba na Mabalozi wa Heshima kumi na wanne (14), ili kudhibiti taratibu za kukusanya maduhuli kwenye Balozi hizo. Wizara itaendelea kutekeleza zoezi hilo kwenye Balozi za Heshima zilizosalia. K. TAASISI ZILIZOKO CHINI YA WIZARA Kituo cha Kimataifa cha Mikutano cha Arusha (AICC) 66. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara yangu inaendelea na hatua za kutafuta fedha kwa ajili ya utekelezaji wa mradi wa ujenzi wa kituo kipya cha mikutano mjini Arusha kitakachojulikana kama Mt. Kilimanjaro International Convention Centre (MK-ICC). Mradi huo ni moja ya nguzo muhimu utakaokiwezesha kituo kupanua wigo wa huduma zake. 67. Mheshimiwa Spika, naomba kuchukua fursa hii kuliarifu Bunge lako tukufu kuwa kwa mara nyingine tena, Kituo kimepata Hati Safi ya hesabu zake zilizoandaliwa na kukaguliwa kwa wakati kwa kipindi kilichoishia tarehe 30 Juni 2010. Kituo kilipata faida ghafi ya shilingi milioni mia tisa themanini na nane, mia nane tisini elfu na mia mbili sitini na sita (988,890,266.00) na kinaendelea kufanya shughuli zake kwa ufanisi na bila kuwa tegemezi kwa Serikali.  Katika kipindi cha mwaka wa fedha 2011/2012 Kituo kimepanga kuingiza mapato ya shilingi bilioni saba, milioni mia saba na sitini na tisa, mia saba arobaini na tatu elfu na mia saba thelathini na saba (7,769,743,737.00) kutokana na vyanzo vyake mbalimbali vya mapato na kinategemea kupata ziada ghafi ya shilingi bilioni moja, milioni mia nne na tano, mia nane arobaini na moja na mia tisa na thelathini na moja (1,405,841,931.00). Chuo cha Diplomasia 68. Mheshimiwa Spika, napenda kuchukua nafasi hii kulieleza Bunge lako tukufu kuwa Chuo cha Diplomasia sasa kimepata usajili wa Baraza la Ithibati ya Elimu ya Ufundi (National Council of Technical Education – NACTE). Hatua hii itafanya mafunzo yanayotolewa na Chuo kutambulika kitaifa na kimataifa, hivyo kufanya idadi ya wanafunzi kuongezeka kuliko ilivyokuwa awali. 69. Mheshimiwa Spika, Chuo kinaendelea kuishauri Wizara yangu katika masuala mbalimbali ya kidiplomasia. Aidha, Chuo kimekuwa kikijishughulisha na utoaji wa taaluma ya utatuzi wa migogoro, tafiti, na ushauri wa kitaalamu katika masuala ya itifaki, diplomasia ya uchumi, stratejia, menejimenti ya mahusiano ya nje na kutoa mafunzo kwa watumishi wa Wizara na wanafunzi wengine kutoka ndani na nje ya nchi. L. MAPATO NA MATUMIZI 2010/2011 70. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika mwaka wa fedha wa 2010/2011 Wizara yangu ilipangiwa kutumia kiasi cha shillingi bilioni mia moja kumi na mbili, mia tatu thelathini na sita milioni na mia tisa ishirini na nane elfu (112,336,928,000.00) Kati ya fedha hizo shilingi bilioni sitini na nne, arobaini milioni na mia saba tisini na mbili elfu (64,040,792,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya matumizi ya kawaida (OC); shilingi bilioni tatu, mia saba tisini na sita milioni, mia moja thelathini na sita elfu (3,796,136,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya mishahara ya watumishi na shilingi bilioni arobaini na nne na milioni mia tano (44,500,000,000.00)  ni kwa ajili ya bajeti ya maendeleo. 71. Mheshimiwa Spika, hadi kufikia tarehe 30 Juni, 2011 Wizara ilikuwa imepokea kutoka HAZINA kiasi cha shilingi bilioni tisini na tatu, milioni mia tisa hamsini na tisa, mia tano arobaini na tisa elfu na mia sita na ishirini (93,959,549,620.00). Kiasi hiki cha fedha ni sawa na asilimia themanini na tatu nukta nne (83.40%) ya bajeti ya Wizara kwa mwaka wa fedha 2010/2011. 72. Mheshimiwa Spika, Wizara kupitia Balozi zake ilitegemea kukusanya kiasi cha shilingi bilioni kumi na mbili, mia saba thelathini na mbili milioni na mia tatu elfu (12,732,300,000.00).  Hadi kufikia tarehe 31 Juni, 2011 kiasi cha shilingi bilioni kumi na tano, mia saba hamsini na sita milioni, mia tisa arobaini na tisa elfu na mia tisa thelathini na mbili (15,756,949,932.00) kilikusanywa, kikiwa ni makusanyo ya maduhuli Balozini na Makao Makuu. Kiasi hiki cha fedha ni sawa na asilimia mia moja ishirini na tatu nukta saba sita (123.76%) ya makusanyo ya fedha zote za maduhuli zilizokadiriwa kukusanywa Balozini na Makao Makuu kwa mwaka wa fedha 2010/2011. M. MALENGO YA WIZARA KATIKA MWAKA WA FEDHA WA 2011/2012 73. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika mwaka wa fedha wa 2011/2012, pamoja na mambo mengine, Wizara yangu imepanga kutekeleza malengo makuu muhimu kulingana na Ilani ya Uchaguzi ya CCM ya mwaka 2010 kama ifuatavyo:- (a) Kuitangaza nchi yetu kama moja ya nchi duniani zenye mazingira muafaka kwa ajili ya uwekezaji hasa kutokana na historia yake ya miaka mingi ya amani, umoja, utulivu na mshikamano wa Kitaifa; (b) Kutangaza utajiri mkubwa wa vivutio vya utalii tulivyonavyo na kuvutia watalii wengi kutoka mabara yote ya dunia waje kuviona; (c) Kuzitafutia masoko bidhaa zetu zenye ubora unaotakiwa katika nchi za nje kwa kushauriana na wazalishaji wa ndani wa bidhaa hizo; (d) Kudai mageuzi ya Umoja wa Mataifa hususan katika Baraza la Usalama la Umoja huo, kwa kuzingatia hoja ya wingi wa agenda zinazojadiliwa na kuamuliwa na Baraza hilo bila ya uwakilishi wetu; (e) Kushiriki katika utatuzi na usuluhishi wa migogoro inayotokea barani Afrika na nchi nyingine duniani, kama vile mgogoro wa Libya. (f) Kuendelea kutekeleza mpango wa ujenzi, ununuzi na ukarabati wa majengo ya Ofisi na makazi balozini. (g) Kukamilisha mchakato wa kuitambua na kushirikisha Jumuiya ya Watanzania wanaoishi ughaibuni na kuweka utaratibu utakaowawezesha kuchangia maendeleo ya taifa letu. N. MAKADIRIO YA MAPATO NA MATUMIZI KWA MWAKA 2011/2012 74. Mheshimiwa Spika, ili kuweza kutekeleza kikamilifu kazi zilizotajwa hapo juu, Wizara yangu imepangiwa kiasi cha shilingi bilioni mia moja ishirini na tano, milioni mia moja na mbili na mia nane sabini na tano elfu (125,102,875,000.00) kwa mwaka wa fedha 2011/2012. Kati ya fedha hizo shilingi bilioni sabini na sita, milioni mia tatu themanini na saba na mia moja themanini na saba elfu (76,387,187,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya Matumizi ya Kawaida (OC), shilingi bilioni nne, milioni mia mbili kumi na tano na mia sita themanini na nane elfu (4,215,688,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya mishahara na shilingi bilioni arobaini na nne na milioni mia tano (44,500,000,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya bajeti ya maendeleo.  75. Mheshimiwa Spika, katika bajeti ya Matumizi ya Kawaida ya Wizara (OC) shilingi bilioni mbili, milioni arobaini na tisa na mia nne sabini na tano elfu (2,049,475,000.00) ni kwa ajili ya mchakato wa APRM, shilingi bilioni moja, milioni mia tano na nne, mia tano sabini na nne elfu na mia nne sabini na nane (1,504,574,478.00) ni kwa ajili ya Mahakama ya Afrika ya Haki za Binadamu na Watu na shilingi bilioni moja, milioni mia nne, mia nne thelathini na sita elfu na mia mbili ishirini na saba (1,400,436,227.00) ni kwa ajili ya fedha za mishahara na Matumizi ya Kawaida ya Chuo cha Diplomasia. 76. Mheshimiwa Spika, aidha, Wizara yangu inatarajia kukusanya kiasi cha shilingi bilioni kumi na nne, milioni mia nane sabini na mbili na mia nne tisini na mbili elfu (14,872,492,000.00) kama maduhuli ya Serikali. Kwa maana ya utekelezaji wa Bajeti, kiasi hiki cha maduhuli tayari kimehesabiwa kama sehemu ya matumizi ya kawaida ya Wizara yangu. 77. Mheshimiwa Spika, naomba kutoa hoja. FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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PARTS AND MATERIALS Two 6 volt batteries Capacitor, 0.1 µF (Radio Shack catalog # 272-135) 1 MΩ resistor Potentiometer, single turn, 5 kΩ, linear taper (Radio Shack catalog # 271-1714) The potentiometer value is not especially critical, although lower-resistance units will, in theory, work better for this experiment than high-resistance units. I’ve used a 10 kΩ potentiometer for this circuit with excellent results. CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 13: “Capacitors” LEARNING OBJECTIVES How to build a differentiator circuit Obtain an empirical understanding of the derivative calculus function SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONS Measure voltage between the potentiometer’s wiper terminal and the “ground” point shown in the schematic diagram (the negative terminal of the lower 6-volt battery). This is the input voltage for the circuit, and you can see how it smoothly varies between zero and 12 volts as the potentiometer control is turned full-range. Since the potentiometer is used here as a voltage divider, this behavior should be unsurprising to you. Now, measure voltage across the 1 MΩ resistor while moving the potentiometer control. A digital voltmeter is highly recommended, and I advise setting it to a very sensitive (millivolt) range to obtain the strongest indications. What does the voltmeter indicate while the potentiometer is not being moved? Turn the potentiometer slowly clockwise and note the voltmeter’s indication. Turn the potentiometer slowly counter-clockwise and note the voltmeter’s indication. What difference do you see between the two different directions of potentiometer control motion? Try moving the potentiometer in such a way that the voltmeter gives a steady, small indication. What kind of potentiometer motion provides the steadiest voltage across the 1 MΩ resistor? In calculus, a function representing the rate of change of one variable as compared to another is called the derivative . This simple circuit illustrates the concept of the derivative by producing an output voltage proportional to the input voltage’s rate of change over time . Because this circuit performs the calculus function of differentiation with respect to time (outputting the time-derivative of an incoming signal), it is called a differentiator circuit. Like the averager circuit shown earlier in this chapter, the differentiator circuit is a kind of analog computer. Differentiation is a far more complex mathematical function than averaging, especially when implemented in a digital computer, so this circuit is an excellent demonstration of the elegance of analog circuitry in performing mathematical computations. More accurate differentiator circuits may be built by combining resistor-capacitor networks with electronic amplifier circuits. For more detail on computational circuitry, go to the “Analog Integrated Circuits” chapter in this Experiments volume.  FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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PARTS AND MATERIALS 6 volt battery Two large electrolytic capacitors, 1000 µF minimum (Radio Shack catalog # 272-1019, 272-1032, or equivalent) Two 1 kΩ resistors One toggle switch, SPST (“Single-Pole, Single-Throw”) Large-value capacitors are required for this experiment to produce time constants slow enough to track with a voltmeter and stopwatch. Be warned that most large capacitors are of the “electrolytic” type, and they are polarity sensitive ! One terminal of each capacitor should be marked with a definite polarity sign. Usually capacitors of the size specified have a negative (-) marking or series of negative markings pointing toward the negative terminal. Very large capacitors are often polarity-labeled by a positive (+) marking next to one terminal. Failure to heed proper polarity will almost surely result in capacitor failure, even with a source voltage as low as 6 volts. When electrolytic capacitors fail, they typically explode , spewing caustic chemicals and emitting foul odors. Please, try to avoid this! I recommend a household light switch for the “SPST toggle switch” specified in the parts list. CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 13: “Capacitors” Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 16: “RC and L/R Time Constants” LEARNING OBJECTIVES Capacitor charging action Capacitor discharging action Time constant calculation Series and parallel capacitance SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION  INSTRUCTIONS Build the “charging” circuit and measure voltage across the capacitor when the switch is closed. Notice how it increases slowly over time, rather than suddenly as would be the case with a resistor. You can “reset” the capacitor back to a voltage of zero by shorting across its terminals with a piece of wire. The “time constant” (τ) of a resistor capacitor circuit is calculated by taking the circuit resistance and multiplying it by the circuit capacitance. For a 1 kΩ resistor and a 1000 µF capacitor, the time constant should be 1 second. This is the amount of time it takes for the capacitor voltage to increase approximately 63.2% from its present value to its final value: the voltage of the battery. It is educational to plot the voltage of a charging capacitor over time on a sheet of graph paper, to see how the inverse exponential curve develops. In order to plot the action of this circuit, though, we must find a way of slowing it down. A one-second time constant doesn’t provide much time to take voltmeter readings! We can increase this circuit’s time constant two different ways: changing the total circuit resistance, and/or changing the total circuit capacitance. Given a pair of identical resistors and a pair of identical capacitors, experiment with various series and parallel combinations to obtain the slowest charging action. You should already know by now how multiple resistors need to be connected to form a greater total resistance, but what about capacitors? This circuit will demonstrate to you how capacitance changes with series and parallel capacitor connections. Just be sure that you insert the capacitor(s) in the proper direction: with the ends labeled negative (-) electrically “closest” to the battery’s negative terminal! The discharging circuit provides the same kind of changing capacitor voltage, except this time the voltage jumps to full battery voltage when the switch closes and slowly falls when the switch is opened. Experiment once again with different combinations of resistors and capacitors, making sure as always that the capacitor’s polarity is correct. COMPUTER SIMULATION Schematic with SPICE node numbers:  Netlist (make a text file containing the following text, verbatim): Capacitor charging circuit v1 1 0 dc 6 r1 1 2 1k c1 2 0 1000u ic=0 .tran 0.1 5 uic .plot tran v(2,0) .end FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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Potato battery

by Paul Joseph on May 29, 2015 · 0 comments

PARTS AND MATERIALS One large potato One lemon (optional) Strip of zinc, or galvanized metal Piece of thick copper wire The basic experiment is based on the use of a potato, but many fruits and vegetables work as potential batteries! For the zinc electrode, a large galvanized nail works well. Nails with a thick, rough zinc texture are preferable to galvanized nails that are smooth. CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 11: “Batteries and Power Systems” LEARNING OBJECTIVES The importance of chemical activity in battery operation How electrode surface area affects battery operation ILLUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONS Push both the nail and the wire deep into the potato. Measure voltage output by the potato battery with a voltmeter. Now, wasn’t that easy? Seriously, though, experiment with different metals, electrode depths, and electrode spacings to obtain the greatest voltage possible from the potato. Try other vegetables or fruits and compare voltage output with the same electrode metals. It can be difficult to power a load with a single “potato” battery, so don’t expect to light up an incandescent lamp or power a hobby motor or do anything like that. Even if the voltage output is adequate, a potato battery has a fairly high internal resistance which causes its voltage to “sag” badly under even a light load. With multiple potato batteries connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel arrangement, though, it is possible to obtain enough voltage and current capacity to power a small load.  FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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PARTS AND MATERIALS Three batteries, each one with a different voltage Three equal-value resistors, between 10 kΩ and 47 kΩ each When selecting resistors, measure each one with an ohmmeter and choose three that are the closest in value to each other. Precision is very important for this experiment! CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 10: “DC Network Analysis” LEARNING OBJECTIVES How a resistor network can function as a voltage signal averager Application of Millman’s Theorem SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONS This deceptively crude circuit performs the function of mathematically averaging three voltage signals together, and so fulfills a specialized computational role. In other words, it is a computer that can only do one mathematical operation: averaging three quantities together. Build this circuit as shown and measure all battery voltages with a voltmeter. Write these voltage figures on paper and average them together (E 1 + E 2 + E 3 , divided by three). When you measure each battery voltage, keep the black test probe connected to the “ground” point (the side of the battery directly joined to the other batteries by jumper wires), and touch the red probe to the other battery terminal. Polarity is important here! You will notice one battery in the schematic diagram connected “backward” to the other two, negative side “up.” This battery’s voltage should read as a negative quantity when measured by a properly connected digital meter, the other batteries measuring positive. When the voltmeter is connected to the circuit at the point shown in the schematic and illustrations, it should register the algebraic average of the three batteries’ voltages. If the resistor values are chosen to match each other very closely, the “output” voltage of this circuit should match the calculated average very closely as well. If one battery is disconnected, the output voltage will equal the average voltage of the remaining batteries. If the jumper wires formerly connecting the removed battery to the averager circuit are connected to each other, the circuit will average the two remaining voltages together with 0 volts, producing a smaller output signal:  The sheer simplicity of this circuit deters most people from calling it a “computer,” but it undeniably performs the mathematical function of averaging. Not only does it perform this function, but it performs it much faster than any modern digital computer can! Digital computers, such as personal computers (PCs) and pushbutton calculators, perform mathematical operations in a series of discrete steps. Analog computers perform calculations in continuous fashion, exploiting Ohm’s and Kirchhoff’s Laws for an arithmetic purpose, the “answer” computed as fast as voltage propagates through the circuit (ideally, at the speed of light!). With the addition of circuits called amplifiers , voltage signals in analog computer networks may be boosted and re-used in other networks to perform a wide variety of mathematical functions. Such analog computers excel at performing the calculus operations of numerical differentiation and integration, and as such may be used to simulate the behavior of complex mechanical, electrical, and even chemical systems. At one time, analog computers were the ultimate tool for engineering research, but since then have been largely supplanted by digital computer technology. Digital computers enjoy the advantage of performing mathematical operations with much better precision than analog computers, albeit at much slower theoretical speeds. COMPUTER SIMULATION Schematic with SPICE node numbers: Netlist (make a text file containing the following text, verbatim): Voltage averager v1 1 0 v2 0 2 dc 9 v3 3 0 dc 1.5 r1 1 4 10k r2 2 4 10k r3 3 4 10k .dc v1 6 6 1 .print dc v(4,0) .end With this SPICE netlist, we can force a digital computer to simulate and analog computer, which averages three numbers together. Obviously, we aren’t doing this for the practical task of averaging numbers, but rather to learn more about circuits and more about computer simulation of circuits!  FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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PARTS AND MATERIALS 6-volt battery Electromagnet made from experiment in previous chapter, or a large spool of wire It would be ideal in this experiment to have two meters: one voltmeter and one ammeter. For experimenters on a budget, this may not be possible. Whatever ammeter is used should be capable measuring at least a few amps of current. A 6-volt “lantern” battery essentially short-circuited by a long piece of wire may produce currents of this magnitude, and your ammeter needs to be capable of measuring it without blowing a fuse or sustaining other damage. Make sure the highest current range on the meter is at least 5 amps! CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 8: “DC Metering Circuits” LEARNING OBJECTIVES Operating principle of Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement How to measure low resistances with common test equipment SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION  INSTRUCTIONS Although this experiment is best performed with two meters, and indeed is shown as such in the schematic diagram and illustration, one multimeter is sufficient. Most ohmmeters operate on the principle of applying a small voltage across an unknown resistance (Runknown) and inferring resistance from the amount of current drawn by it. Except in special cases such as the megger, both the voltage and current quantities employed by the meter are quite small. This presents a problem for measurement of low resistances, as a low resistance specimen may be of much smaller resistance value than the meter circuitry itself. Imagine trying to measure the diameter of a cotton thread with a yardstick, or measuring the weight of a coin with a scale built for weighing freight trucks, and you will appreciate the problem at hand. One of the many sources of error in measuring small resistances with an ordinary ohmmeter is the resistance of the ohmmeter’s own test leads. Being part of the measurement circuit, the test leads may contain more resistance than the resistance of the test specimen, incurring significant measurement error by their presence:   One solution is called the Kelvin , or 4-wire , resistance measurement method. It involves the use of an ammeter and voltmeter, determining specimen resistance by Ohm’s Law calculation. A current is passed through the unknown resistance and measured. The voltage dropped across the resistance is measured by the voltmeter, and resistance calculated using Ohm’s Law (R=E/I). Very small resistances may be measured easily by using large current, providing a more easily measured voltage drop from which to infer resistance than if a small current were used. Because only the voltage dropped by the unknown resistance is factored into the calculation — not the voltage dropped across the ammeter’s test leads or any other connecting wires carrying the main current — errors otherwise caused by these stray resistances are completely eliminated. First, select a suitably low resistance specimen to use in this experiment. I suggest the electromagnet coil specified in the last chapter, or a spool of wire where both ends may be accessed. Connect a 6-volt battery to this specimen, with an ammeter connected in series. WARNING: the ammeter used should be capable of measuring at least 5 amps of current, so that it will not be damaged by the (possibly) high current generated in this near-short circuit condition. If you have a second meter, use it to measure voltage across the specimen’s connection points, as shown in the illustration, and record both meters’ indications. If you have only one meter, use it to measure current first, recording its indication as quickly as possible, then immediately opening (breaking) the circuit. Switch the meter to its voltage mode, connect it across the specimen’s connection points, and re-connect the battery, quickly noting the voltage indication. You don’t want to leave the battery connected to the specimen for any longer than necessary for obtaining meter measurements, as it will begin to rapidly discharge due to the high circuit current, thus compromising measurement accuracy when the meter is re-configured and the circuit closed once more for the next measurement. When two meters are used, this is not as significant an issue, because the current and voltage indications may be recorded simultaneously . Take the voltage measurement and divide it by the current measurement. The quotient will be equal to the specimen’s resistance in ohms.  FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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 PARTS AND MATERIALS     Two 6 volt batteries     One potentiometer, single turn, 10 kΩ, linear taper (Radio Shack catalog # 271-1715)     Two high-value resistors (at least 1 MΩ each)     Sensitive voltage detector (from previous experiment)     Analog voltmeter (from previous experiment) The potentiometer value is not critical: anything from 1 kΩ to 100 kΩ is acceptable. If you have built the “precision potentiometer” described earlier in this chapter, it is recommended that you use it in this experiment. Likewise, the actual values of the resistors are not critical. In this particular experiment, the greater the value, the better the results. They need not be precisely equal value, either. If you have not yet built the sensitive voltage detector, it is recommended that you build one before proceeding with this experiment! It is a very useful, yet simple, piece of test equipment that you should not be without. You can use a digital multimeter set to the “DC millivolt” (DC mV) range in lieu of a voltage detector, but the headphone-based voltage detector is more appropriate because it demonstrates how you can make precise voltage measurements without using expensive or advanced meter equipment. I recommend using your home-made multimeter for the same reason, although any voltmeter will suffice for this experiment. CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume 1, chapter 8: “DC Metering Circuits” LEARNING OBJECTIVES     Voltmeter loading: its causes and its solution     Using a potentiometer as a source of variable voltage     Potentiometric method of voltage measurement SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONS Build the two-resistor voltage divider circuit shown on the left of the schematic diagram and of the illustration. If the two high-value resistors are of equal value, the battery’s voltage should be split in half, with approximately 3 volts dropped across each resistor. Measure the battery voltage directly with a voltmeter, then measure each resistor’s voltage drop. Do you notice anything unusual about the voltmeter’s readings? Normally, series voltage drops add to equal the total applied voltage, but in this case you will notice a serious discrepancy. Is Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law untrue? Is this an exception to one of the most fundamental laws of electric circuits? No! What is happening is this: when you connect a voltmeter across either resistor, the voltmeter itself alters the circuit so that the voltage is not the same as with no meter connected. I like to use the analogy of an air pressure gauge used to check the pressure of a pneumatic tire. When a gauge is connected to the tire’s fill valve, it releases some air out of the tire. This affects the pressure in the tire, and so the gauge reads a slightly lower pressure than what was in the tire before the gauge was connected. In other words, the act of measuring tire pressure alters the tire’s pressure. Hopefully, though, there is so little air released from the tire during the act of measurement that the reduction in pressure is negligible. Voltmeters similarly impact the voltage they measure, by bypassing some current around the component whose voltage drop is being measured. This affects the voltage drop, but the effect is so slight that you usually don’t notice it. In this circuit, though, the effect is very pronounced. Why is this? Try replacing the two high-value resistors with two of 100 kΩ value each and repeat the experiment. Replace those resistors with two 10 KΩ units and repeat. What do you notice about the voltage readings with lower-value resistors? What does this tell you about voltmeter “impact” on a circuit in relation to that circuit’s resistance? Replace any low-value resistors with the original, high-value (> = 1 MΩ) resistors before proceeding. Try measuring voltage across the two high-value resistors — one at a time — with a digital voltmeter instead of an analog voltmeter. What do you notice about the digital meter’s readings versus the analog meter’s? Digital voltmeters typically have greater internal (probe-to-probe) resistance, meaning they draw less current than a comparable analog voltmeter when measuring the same voltage source. An ideal voltmeter would draw zero current from the circuit under test, and thus suffer no voltage “impact” problems. If you happen to have two voltmeters, try this: connect one voltmeter across one resistor, and the other voltmeter across the other resistor. The voltage readings you get will add up to the total voltage this time, no matter what the resistor values are, even though they’re different from the readings obtained from a single meter used twice. Unfortunately, though, it is unlikely that the voltage readings obtained this way are equal to the true voltage drops with no meters connected, and so it is not a practical solution to the problem. Is there any way to make a “perfect” voltmeter: one that has infinite resistance and draws no current from the circuit under test? Modern laboratory voltmeters approach this goal by using semiconductor “amplifier” circuits, but this method is too technologically advanced for the student or hobbyist to duplicate. A much simpler and much older technique is called the potentiometric or null-balance method. This involves using an adjustable voltage source to “balance” the measured voltage. When the two voltages are equal, as indicated by a very sensitive null detector , the adjustable voltage source is measured with an ordinary voltmeter. Because the two voltage sources are equal to each other, measuring the adjustable source is the same as measuring across the test circuit, except that there is no “impact” error because the adjustable source provides any current needed by the voltmeter. Consequently, the circuit under test remains unaffected, allowing measurement of its true voltage drop. Examine the following schematic to see how the potentiometric voltmeter method is implemented:  The circle symbol with the word “null” written inside represents the null detector. This can be any arbitrarily sensitive meter movement or voltage indicator. Its sole purpose in this circuit is to indicate when there is zero voltage: when the adjustable voltage source (potentiometer) is precisely equal to the voltage drop in the circuit under test. The more sensitive this null detector is, the more precisely the adjustable source may be adjusted to equal the voltage under test, and the more precisely that test voltage may be measured. Build this circuit as shown in the illustration and test its operation measuring the voltage drop across one of the high-value resistors in the test circuit. It may be easier to use a regular multimeter as a null detector at first, until you become familiar with the process of adjusting the potentiometer for a “null” indication, then reading the voltmeter connected across the potentiometer. If you are using the headphone-based voltage detector as your null meter, you will need to intermittently make and break contact with the circuit under test and listen for “clicking” sounds. Do this by firmly securing one of the test probes to the test circuit and momentarily touching the other test probe to the other point in the test circuit again and again, listening for sounds in the headphones indicating a difference of voltage between the test circuit and the potentiometer. Adjust the potentiometer until no clicking sounds can be heard from the headphones. This indicates a “null” or “balanced” condition, and you may read the voltmeter indication to see how much voltage is dropped across the test circuit resistor. Unfortunately, the headphone-based null detector provides no indication of whether the potentiometer voltage is greater than , or less than the test circuit voltage, so you will have to listen for decreasing “click” intensity while turning the potentiometer to determine if you need to adjust the voltage higher or lower. You may find that a single-turn (“3/4 turn”) potentiometer is too coarse of an adjustment device to accurately “null” the measurement circuit. A multi-turn potentiometer may be used instead of the single-turn unit for greater adjustment precision, or the “precision potentiometer” circuit described in an earlier experiment may be used. Prior to the advent of amplified voltmeter technology, the potentiometric method was the only method for making highly accurate voltage measurements. Even now, electrical standards laboratories make use of this technique along with the latest meter technology to minimize meter “impact” errors and maximize measurement accuracy. Although the potentiometric method requires more skill to use than simply connecting a modern digital voltmeter across a component, and is considered obsolete for all but the most precise measurement applications, it is still a valuable learning process for the new student of electronics, and a useful technique for the hobbyist who may lack expensive instrumentation in their home laboratory. COMPUTER SIMULATION Schematic with SPICE node numbers:  Netlist (make a text file containing the following text, verbatim): Potentiometric voltmeter v1 1 0 dc 6 v2 3 0 r1 1 2 1meg r2 2 0 1meg rnull 2 3 10k rmeter 3 0 50k .dc v2 0 6 0.5 .print dc v(2,0) v(2,3) v(3,0) .end This SPICE simulation shows the actual voltage across R2 of the test circuit, the null detector’s voltage, and the voltage across the adjustable voltage source, as that source is adjusted from 0 volts to 6 volts in 0.5 volt steps. In the output of this simulation, you will notice that the voltage across R2 is impacted significantly when the measurement circuit is unbalanced, returning to its true voltage only when there is practically zero voltage across the null detector. At that point, of course, the adjustable voltage source is at a value of 3.000 volts: precisely equal to the (unaffected) test circuit voltage drop. What is the lesson to be learned from this simulation? That a potentiometric voltmeter avoids impacting the test circuit only when it is in a condition of perfect balance (“null”) with the test circuit!   FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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According to a new teaser video posted by Yamaha Indonesia, it is speculated that the Yamaha MT-25 would be officially unveiled at a Yamaha street… Visit the link above to read the full story.

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PARTS AND MATERIALS High-quality “closed-cup” audio headphones Headphone jack: female receptacle for headphone plug (Radio Shack catalog # 274-312) Small step-down power transformer (Radio Shack catalog # 273-1365 or equivalent, using the 6-volt secondary winding tap) Two 1N4001 rectifying diodes (Radio Shack catalog # 276-1101) 1 kΩ resistor 100 kΩ potentiometer (Radio Shack catalog # 271-092) Two “banana” jack style binding posts, or other terminal hardware, for connection to potentiometer circuit (Radio Shack catalog # 274-662 or equivalent) Plastic or metal mounting box Regarding the headphones, the higher the “sensitivity” rating in decibels (dB), the better, but listening is believing: if you’re serious about building a detector with maximum sensitivity for small electrical signals, you should try a few different headphone models at a high-quality audio store and “listen” for which ones produce an audible sound for the lowest volume setting on a radio or CD player. Beware, as you could spend hundreds of dollars on a pair of headphones to get the absolute best sensitivity! Take heart, though: I’ve used an old pair of Radio Shack “Realistic” brand headphones with perfectly adequate results, so you don’t need to buy the best. A transformer is a device normally used with alternating current (“AC”) circuits, used to convert high-voltage AC power into low-voltage AC power, and for many other purposes. It is not important that you understand its intended function in this experiment, other than it makes the headphones become more sensitive to low-current electrical signals. Normally, the transformer used in this type of application (audio speaker impedance matching) is called an “audio transformer,” with its primary and secondary windings represented by impedance values (1000 Ω : 8 Ω) instead of voltages. An audio transformer will work, but I’ve found small step-down power transformers of 120/6 volt ratio to be perfectly adequate for the task, cheaper (especially when taken from an old thrift-store alarm clock radio), and far more rugged. The tolerance (precision) rating for the 1 kΩ resistor is irrelevant. The 100 kΩ potentiometer is a recommended option for incorporation into this project, as it gives the user control over the loudness for any given signal. Even though an audio-taper potentiometer would be appropriate for this application, it is not necessary. A linear-taper potentiometer works quite well. CROSS-REFERENCES Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 8: “DC Metering Circuits” Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 1, chapter 10: “DC Network Analysis” (in regard to the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem) Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 2, chapter 9: “Transformers” Lessons In Electric Circuits , Volume 2, chapter 12: “AC Metering Circuits” LEARNING OBJECTIVES Soldering practice Detection of extremely small electrical signals Using a potentiometer as a voltage divider/signal attenuator Using diodes to “clip” voltage at some maximum level SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION INSTRUCTIONS The headphones, most likely being stereo units (separate left and right speakers) will have a three-contact plug. You will be connecting to only two of those three contact points. If you only have a “mono” headphone set with a two-contact plug, just connect to those two contact points. You may either connect the two stereo speakers in series or in parallel. I’ve found the series connection to work best, that is, to produce the most sound from a small signal:  Solder all wire connections well. This detector system is extremely sensitive, and any loose wire connections in the circuit will add unwanted noise to the sounds produced by the measured voltage signal. The two diodes (arrow-like component symbols) connected in parallel with the transformer’s primary winding, along with the series-connected 1 kΩ resistor, work together to prevent any more than about 0.7 volts from being dropped across the primary coil of the transformer. This does one thing and one thing only: limit the amount of sound the headphones can produce. The system will work without the diodes and resistor in place, but there will be no limit to sound volume in the circuit, and the resulting sound caused by accidently connecting the test leads across a substantial voltage source (like a battery) can be deafening! Binding posts provide points of connection for a pair of test probes with banana-style plugs, once the detector components are mounted inside a box. You may use ordinary multimeter probes, or make your own probes with alligator clips at the ends for secure connection to a circuit. Detectors are intended to be used for balancing bridge measurement circuits, potentiometric (null-balance) voltmeter circuits, and detect extremely low-amplitude AC (“alternating current”) signals in the audio frequency range. It is a valuable piece of test equipment, especially for the low-budget experimenter without an oscilloscope. It is also valuable in that it allows you to use a different bodily sense in interpreting the behavior of a circuit. For connection across any non-trivial source of voltage (1 volt and greater), the detector’s extremely high sensitivity should be attenuated. This may be accomplished by connecting a voltage divider to the “front” of the circuit: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATION  Adjust the 100 kΩ voltage divider potentiometer to about mid-range when initially sensing a voltage signal of unknown magnitude. If the sound is too loud, turn the potentiometer down and try again. If too soft, turn it up and try again. The detector produces a “click” sound whenever the test leads make or break contact with the voltage source under test. With my cheap headphones, I’ve been able to detect currents of less than 1/10 of a microamp (< 0.1 µA). A good demonstration of the detector's sensitivity is to touch both test leads to the end of your tongue, with the sensitivity adjustment set to maximum. The voltage produced by metal-to-electrolyte contact (called galvanic voltage) is very small, but enough to produce soft "clicking" sounds every time the leads make and break contact on the wet skin of your tongue. Try unplugged the headphone plug from the jack (receptacle) and similarly touching it to the end of your tongue. You should still hear soft clicking sounds, but they will be much smaller in amplitude. Headphone speakers are "low impedance" devices: they require low voltage and "high" current to deliver substantial sound power. Impedance is a measure of opposition to any and all forms of electric current, including alternating current (AC). Resistance, by comparison, is a strictly measure of opposition to direct current (DC). Like resistance, impedance is measured in the unit of the Ohm (Ω), but it is symbolized in equations by the capital letter "Z" rather than the capital letter "R". We use the term "impedance" to describe the headphone's opposition to current because it is primarily AC signals that headphones are normally subjected to, not DC. Most small signal sources have high internal impedances, some much higher than the nominal 8 Ω of the headphone speakers. This is a technical way of saying that they are incapable of supplying substantial amounts of current. As the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem predicts, maximum sound power will be delivered by the headphone speakers when their impedance is "matched" to the impedance of the voltage source. The transformer does this. The transformer also helps aid the detection of small DC signals by producing inductive "kickback" every time the test lead circuit is broken, thus "amplifying" the signal by magnetically storing up electrical energy and suddenly releasing it to the headphone speakers. I recommend building this detector in a permanent fashion (mounting all components inside of a box, and providing nice test lead wires) so it may be easily used in the future. Constructed as such, it might look something like this:  FOLLOW INSTAGRAM@sosteneslekule

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